بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر حضور تماشاگران زن در استادیوم‌های فوتبال

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری مدیریت ورزشی، دانشگاه فنی و حرفه ای خراسان رضوی، آموزشکده فنی الزهرا، مشهد، ایران.

2 استادیار مدیریت ورزشی، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

 
کارشناسان و مسئولان دولتی مدت‌هاست که دربارۀ حضور بانوان در استادیوم‌های ورزشی بحث و گفت‌وگو می‌کنند و تاکنون نیز به نتیجۀ مشخصی نرسیده‌اند. تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر حضور تماشاگران زن در استادیوم‌های فوتبال انجام گرفت. جامعۀ آماری تحقیق، تماشاگران مردی بودند که فقط تجربۀ تماشای مسابقات مردان را داشتند و همچنین زنانی که فقط تجربۀ تماشای مسابقات زنان را داشتند. به‌دلیل نامشخص بودن تعداد جامعۀ آماری، 224 نفر (زن=114، مرد=110) به‌صورت نمونۀ در دسترس انتخاب شدند که دست‌کم پنج بار تجربۀ حضور در ورزشگاه‌ها را داشتند. از پرسشنامۀ محقق‌ساختۀ 20 سؤالی پنج‌ارزشی لیکرت برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها استفاده شد که روایی آن توسط 10 استاد دانشگاه تأیید شد و پایایی آن نیز به تأیید رسید (81/0=r). داده‌ها با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی با چرخش متعامد، آزمون کولموگروف- اسمیرنوف، فریدمن و باینومیال در سطح 05/0≥ p تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که عوامل مؤثر بر حضور تماشاگران زن به‌ ترتیبِ میانگین رتبه در چهار عامل مدیریتی (69/2)، امنیتی (63/2)، فرهنگی (47/2) و اجتماعی (22/2) قرار گرفتند. در ضمن، اولویت این عوامل معنی‌دار بود. از دیدگاه زنان و مردان، توسعۀ ورزش در خانواده مهم‌ترین گویۀ اثرگذار بر حضور تماشاگران زن است، بنابراین، با فرهنگ‌سازی از طریق مشارکت خانوادگی متناسب با ارزش‌های فرهنگی ایران و اقدامات امنیتی، می‌توان امکان توسعۀ حضور تماشاگران زن در استادیوم‌های فوتبال را به‌تدریج فراهم کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Investigation of Factors Influencing Women Spectators’ Presence in Football Stadiums

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Ahmadi 1
  • mahammad reza boroumand 2
  • Rahim Ramezaninejad 2
1 PHD of Sport Management, Faculty of Alzahra, Technical & Vocational University (TVU) Razavi Khorasan, Mashhad, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Shahid Beheshti, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
The issue of women attending sport stadiums has long been discussed by experts and government authorities and has not reached a specific conclusion. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate those factors influencing women spectators’ presence in football stadiums. The research population consisted of male spectators who had only experienced to attend men's competitions, as well as women who had only attended the women's competitions. As the number of population was not obvious, 224 subjects (women=114, men=110) were selected by convenience sampling method who had attended stadiums at least 5 times. A 5-point Likert scale researcher-made questionnaire (20 items) was used to collect data. The validity and reliability were confirmed by university professors (r=0.81). Data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal rotation, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman test and Binomial test at P≤0.05. The results showed that the factors affecting the presence of women spectators were ranked by their means in 4 factors: managerial (2.69), security (2.63), cultural (2.47), and social (2.22); the priority of these factors was also significant. Accordingly, from the viewpoints of men and women, the development of sports in the family was the most important item affecting the presence of women spectators. Therefore, it is possible to gradually develop the presence of women spectators in football stadiums by developing the culture through family participation in line with Iranian cultural values and security measures.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • culture of spectators
  • football stadiums
  • security of stadiums
  • women spectators
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