تأثیر چهار هفته تمرین پلایومتریک بر میزان هم‌فعالی عضلات موافق و مخالف اندام تحتانی دختران فعال در مراحل مختلف پرش عمقی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه تربیت بدنی، دانشگاه فرهنگیان، تهران، ایران

2 استاد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

3 استاد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه تربیت بدنی، دانشکدة علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

4 استاد فیزیوتراپی، دانشکده توانبخشی ، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران ، ایران.

چکیده

 
زنان ورزشکار به‌دلیل هم‌فعالی کمتر بیشتر از مردان دچار آسیب‌دیدگی لیگامنت‌های زانو می‌شوند. هدف پژوهش حاضر تعیین اثر 4 هفته تمرین پلایومتریک بر میزان هم‌فعالی عضلات اندام تحتانی دختران فعال در مراحل مختلف پرش عمقی بود. تعداد 20 نفر از دانشجویان دختر تربیت بدنی (میانگین سن 63/0±8/21 سال، قد 05/0±64/1 متر، وزن 26/9± 98/56 کیلوگرم) به‌صورت تصادفی به دو گروه تجربی پلایومتریک (ده نفر) و کنترل (ده نفر) تقسیم شدند. گروه تجربی، تمرین پلایومتریک را 4 هفتة متوالی هر هفته دو جلسه انجام داد. در پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون، الکترومیوگرافی سطحی از عضلات درشت‌نی قدامی، دوقلوی داخلی، دوسررانی و راست‌رانی به‌عمل آمد. میزان هم‌فعالی عضلات ران و ساق پای برتر در حین 3 مرحله پرش عمقی از ارتفاع 20 سانتی‌متر محاسبه شد. از آنالیز کوواریانس برای بررسی اثر تمرین در سطح معناداری 05/0p≤ استفاده شد. نتایج تحلیل کوواریانس تک‌متغیره با کنترل اثر پیش‌آزمون نشان داد که بین گروه تجربی و کنترل از لحاظ پس‌آزمون هم‌فعالی عضلات ران و ساق پا به‌ترتیب در مرحلة 2 (پیش فعالیت 14/ 0P= و 07/0= P)، مرحلة 3 (تماس 41/0 = P و 11/0= P) و مرحلة 4 (پرواز 65/0= P و 12/0= P) تفاوت معناداری دیده نشد. در گروه پلایومتریک میزان هم‌فعالی عضلات ران، روند افزایشی و عضلات ساق روند کاهشی را نشان داد. حرکات پلایومتریک رو به عقب فعالیت عضلات خلفی پا را افزایش دهد و به ثبات ACL کمک کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of 4 Weeks of Plyometric Training on Coactivation of Antagonist and Agonist Muscles in Lower Limb of Active Girls during Different Phases of Drop Jump

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayeh Ahmadabadi 1
  • Hamid Rajabi 2
  • Reza Gharakhnloo 3
  • Saeed Talebian Moghadam 4
1 Assistant Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
4 Professor of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
Female athletes are more likely to have knee ligament injuries than men due to less coactivation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of plyometric training on the coactivation level of the lower limb muscles of active girls in different phases of drop jump. 20 female physical education students (mean age: 21.8±0.63 years, height: 1.64± 0.05 m, weight: 56.98± 9.26 kg) were randomly divided into two groups: experimental plyometrics (n=10) and control (n=10). The experimental group performed plyometric training twice a week for four consecutive weeks. In pretest and posttest, surface electromyography was performed on tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, biceps femoris and rectus femoris. The coactivation level of dominant thigh and shin muscles was calculated during 3 phases of drop jump from 20 cm height. Analysis of covariance was used to investigate the effect of training at the significance level of P≤0.05. The results of univariate analysis of covariance with controlling the pretest effect showed no significant differences between experimental and control groups in posttest coactivation of thigh and shin muscles in phase 2 (pre-activity, P=0.14 and P=0.07), phase 3 (contact, P=0.41 and P=0.11) and phase 4 (fly, P=0.65 and P=0.12). In the plyometric group, the coactivation level of thigh and shin muscles showed increasing and decreasing trends respectively. Backward plyometric movements increase the activity level of leg dorsal muscles and help the ACL stability.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Active girls
  • coactivation
  • drop jump
  • electromyography
  • Plyometric training
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