تأثیر چهار هفته تمرین پلاریزه بر متغیرهای آمادگی هوازی و بی‌هوازی بازیکنان فوتبال

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم زیستی ورزشی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی و تندرستی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم زیستی ورزشی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی و تندرستی،دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران، ایران.

چکیده

آمادگی فوتبال نیازمند به‌کارگیری سیستم‌های انرژی هوازی و بی‌هوازی است که می‌تواند به‌وسیلۀ توزیع شدت تمرین حاصل شود. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی تأثیر 4 هفته تمرین پلاریزه بر متغیرهای آمادگی هوازی و بی‌هوازی بازیکنان فوتبال بود.20 بازیکن فوتبال لیگ تهران براساس اکسیژن مصرفی بیشینه در قالب دو گروه تمرینات پلاریزه (10 نفر؛ 11/52 میلی‌لیتر/کیلوگرم/دقیقه) و تمرینات معمول آماده‌سازی هوازی فوتبال (10 نفر؛ 31/53 میلی‌لیتر/کیلوگرم/دقیقه) تقسیم شدند. آزمودنی‌ها پیش و پس از 4 هفته تمرینات پلاریزه (4 جلسه در هفته، 3 جلسه حجم بالا - شدت کم، 30 -45 دقیقه با 55 تا 85 درصد ضربان قلب بیشینه و یک جلسۀ تناوبی شدید 25 دقیقه بالای 90 درصد ضربان قلب بیشینه در هفته‌های دوم و چهارم یک جلسۀ 30 دقیقه‌ای با شدت 85 تا 90 درصد ضربان قلب بیشینه بین دو آستانۀ لاکتات) و معمولی فوتبال (4 جلسه در هفته، 2 جلسۀ تناوبی با شدت بالا، 1 جلسه آستانۀ لاکتات 20 تا 30 دقیقه، 85 تا 90 درصد ضربان قلب بیشینه و 1 جلسه تمرین با شدت پایین 55 تا 85 درصد ضربان) ارزیابی شدند. از آزمون تی مستقل پس از کم کردن نمره‌های پس‌آزمون از پیش‌آزمون برای مقایسۀ تأثیرات بین و تی وابسته برای بررسی تغییرات درون‌گروهی استفاده شد (05/0≥P). پس از 4 هفته تمرینات پلاریزه و معمولی، اکسیژن مصرفی بیشینه (001/0=P و 001/0=P) و ویژه فوتبال (001/0=P و 006/0=P) و اوج توان (001/0=P و 007/0=P) به‌طور معنادار نسبت به پیش‌آزمون افزایش و نسبت تبادل تنفسی کاهش یافت (02/0=P و 041/0=P). علاوه‌بر این، مدل تمرین پلاریزه به افزایش معنادار اکسیژن مصرفی بیشینه (001/0=P) و ویژۀ فوتبال (001/0=P) و اوج توان نسبت به مدل معمولی تمرینات فوتبال منجر شد (001/0=P). نتایج تحقیق نشان داد توزیع شدت تمرین بر اساس مدل پلاریزه می‌تواند در دوره‌های کوتاه‌مدت تمرین مؤثرتر از تمرینات معمول آماده‌سازی فوتبال در مرحلۀ خارج از فصل مسابقات به‌منظور پیشرفت آمادگی هوازی و بی‌هوازی بازیکنان باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of 4 weeks polarize training on aerobic and anaerobic fitness variables in soccer players

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohamad Malyani 1
  • Mohamad Fashi 2
1 Masters, Department of biological sciences in sports, faculty of sports science and health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of biological sciences in sports, faculty of sports science and health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Soccer preparation requires the use of aerobic and anaerobic energy systems, which can be achieved by the intensity distribution of training. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks of polarizing training on aerobic and anaerobic fitness variables in soccer players. 20 soccer players in Tehran soccer league were divided
 into polarized (n=10; 52.11 ml/kg/min) and usual soccer training (n=10; 53.31 ml/kg/min) groups based on maximum oxygen consumption. Subjects were evaluated before and after four weeks of polarize (four-session consisting of three sessions of high volume -low-intensity training followed by a high-intensity interval training session) and usual soccer training (Four sessions per week including two sessions of high-intensity interval training, one session of lactate threshold training and one session of low-intensity training) to measure maximal oxygen consumption and soccer-specific, mean and peak power and respiratory exchange ratio. Maximum oxygen consumption, peak power, soccer-specific Maximum oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly increased after four weeks of polarized and usual soccer training (P<0.05). Also, the polarized training model resulted in a significant increase in maximal oxygen consumption, peak power, and specific soccer maximal oxygen consumption compared to the usual soccer training model (P≤0.01). The results showed that the distribution of training intensity based on the polarized model can be more effective in short term than the usual soccer training in off-season preparations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • aerobic power
  • anaerobic power
  • training intensity
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