عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different ambient temperatures on cellular damage after simulated wrestling training in adolescent wrestlers. From adolescent wrestlers of Kurdistan province who were champions in 2015provincial competitions, 21 wrestlers (age: 15.04±0.8 years, weight: 59.20±12.67 kg, height: 163.47±7.39 cm, body fat percent: 10.03±3.39%) were selected as subjects based on inclusion criteria. Then, according to personal characteristics, subjects were divided into three groups: high temperature, normal temperature and low temperature. After providing the desired ambient temperature (30, 18 and 10°C), subjects completed a training protocol based on wrestling techniques (8 stations in a circle). Blood samples were collected before, immediately and 30 minutes after the training. ANOVA with repeated measures and one-way ANOVA were used to investigate the differences within and among groups respectivelyat a significance level of 0.05. The results indicated that the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) increased in the three groups, but this increase was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Also, the levels of AST and ALT in high temperature group increased more than other groups.The results showed that heat stress could aggravate cellular damage in adolescent wrestlers. Thus, due to the importance of the adolescence period, it is recommended to pay special attention to the ambient temperature of training and competition gyms of this agegroup.
10.Burtis, C. A., Ashwood, E. R., & Bruns, D. E. (2012). “Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics”. Elsevier Health Sciences, 56-93.
11.Chevion, S., Moran, D. S., Heled, Y., et al. (2003). “Plasma antioxidant status and cell injury after severe physical exercise”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(9): 5119-5123.
12.Cinar, K., Coban, S., Idilman, R., et al. (2006). “Long-term prognosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Is pharmacological therapy actually necessary?” Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, 21(1): 169-173.
13.Di Bonito, P., Sanguigno, E., Di Fraia, T., et al. (2009). “Association of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase with metabolic factors in obese children: sex-related analysis”. Metabolism, 58(3): 368-372.
14.Faulkner, J. A. (2003). “Terminology for contractions of muscles during shortening, while isometric, and during lengthening”. Journal of Applied Physiology, 95(2): 455-459.
15.Friden, J., & Lieber, R. (2001). “Eccentric exercise induced injuries to contractile and cytoskeletal muscle fibre components”. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 171(3): 321-326.
16.Fu, F. H., You, C.Y., Kong, Z. W. (2002). “Acute changes in selected serum enzyme and metabolite concentrations in 12-to 14-yr.-old athletes after an all-out 100-m swimming sprint”. Perceptual and motor skills, 95(3 Pt 2): 1171-1178.
17.Groth, T., & Sylvén, C. (1981). “Myoglobin kinetics in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction in its early phase as studied by the single injection method”. Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation, 41(1): 79-85.
18.Hazar, M., Otağ, A., Otağ, İ., et al. (2015). “Effect of increasing maximal aerobic exercise on serum muscles enzymes in professional field hockey players”. Global journal of health science, 7(3): 69-74.
19.Hoffman, J. R., Maresh, C. M., Newton, R. U., et al. (2002). “Performance, biochemical, and endocrine changes during a competitive football game”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(11): 1845-1853.
20.Johnson, N. A., Sachinwalla, T., Walton, D. W., et al. (2009). “Aerobic exercise training reduces hepatic and visceral lipids in obese individuals without weight loss”. Hepatology, 50(4): 1105-1112.
21.Kalafati, M., Jamurtas, A. Z., Nikolaidis, M. G., et al. (2010). “Ergogenic and antioxidant effects of spirulina supplementation in humans”. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(1): 142-151.
22.Knicker, A. J., Renshaw, I., Oldham, A. R., et al. (2011). “Interactive processes link the multiple symptoms of fatigue in sport competition”. Sports Medicine, 41(4): 307-328.
23.Koutedakis, Y., Raafat, A., Sharp, N., et al. (1993). “Serum enzyme activities in individuals with different levels of physical fitness”. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 33(3): 252-257.
24.Leppänen, E. (1989). “Experimental basis of standardized specimen collection: the effect of short moderate exercise on serum K, Na, ASAT, ALAT, CK and LD”. Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation, 49(3): 292-297.
25.Mena, P., Maynar, M., Campillo, J. (1996). “Changes in plasma enzyme activities in professional racing cyclists”. British journal of sports medicine, 30(2): 122-124.
26.Mohammadizadeh, M. A., Ghanbarzadeh, M., Habibi, A., et al. (2013). “The Effect of High Intensity Interval Exercise in High/Low Temperatures on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) in Trained Adolescent Males”. Tanaffos, 12(3): 29-43.
27.Mougios, V. (2006). “Exercise biochemistry”. Human Kinetics. PP: 20-81.
28.Newham, D., Jones, D., Edwards, R. (1986). “Plasma creatine kinase changes after eccentric and concentric contractions”. Muscle & nerve, 9(1): 59-63.
29.Noakes, T. D. (1987). “Effect of exercise on serum enzyme activities in humans”. Sports Medicine, 4(4): 245-267.
30.Nosaka, K., Clarkson, P. M. (1997). “Influence of previous concentric exercise on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage”. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15(5): 477-483.
31.Pediatrics, A. A. o. (2000). “Climatic heat stress and the exercising child and adolescent”. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness. Pediatrics, 106 (1 Pt 1): 158-159.
32.Pettersson, J., Hindorf, U., Persson, P., et al. (2008). “Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men”. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 65(2): 253-259.
33.Popova, J., Buravkova, L. (2006). “Blood biochemical parameters in women during long-term simulated hyperoxic diving up to 8 ATA”. Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, 33(3): 211-6.
34.Price, N. C., Frey, P. A. (2001). “Fundamentals of enzymology”. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 29(1): 34-35.
35.Ramezanpour, M. R., Pouyafar, M., Mehrvarzyan, A. (2015). “The effect of one section practice with different intensities on Hemoglobin rate, Biliroubin & The liver anthems of young Iranian wrestlers”. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 9 (8): 1354-1359.
36.Ramos, D., Martins, E. G., Viana-Gomes, D., et al. (2013). “Biomarkers of oxidative stress and tissue damage released by muscle and liver after a single bout of swimming exercise”. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 38(5): 507-511.
37.Rashid Lamir, A. (2013). “Effect of water and sport beverage intake on biochemical and physiological variables in traioned wrestlers”. Medicina dello Sport, 66 (3): 223-229.
38.Rawson, E. S., Persky, A. M. (2007). “Mechanisms of muscular adaptations to creatine supplementation”. International SportMed Journal, 8(2): 43-53.
39.Roelands, B., de Koning, J., Foster, C., et al. (2013). “Neurophysiological determinants of theoretical concepts and mechanisms involved in pacing”. Sports Medicine, 43(5): 301-311.
40.Takahashi, I., Umeda, T., Mashiko, T., et al. (2007). “Effects of rugby seven matches on human neutrophil-related non-specific immunity”. British journal of sports medicine, 41(1): 13-18.
41.Villegas, R., Xiang, Y.-B., Elasy, T., et al. (2011). “Liver enzymes, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged, urban Chinese men”. Metabolic syndrome and related disorders, 9(4): 305-311.
42.Wakabayashi, H., Wijayanto, T., Lee, J.-Y., et al. (2014). “A comparison of hydration effect on body fluid and temperature regulation between Malaysian and Japanese males exercising at mild dehydration in humid heat”. Journal of physiological anthropology, 33(1): 1-11.
43.Washington, R., Bernhardt, D., Brenner, J., et al. (2005). “Promotion of healthy weight-control practices in young athletes”. Pediatrics, 116(6): 1557-1564.