عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare amotivation reasons of high school students to participate in physical education activities from the viewpoints of physical education (PE) teachers and students and the relationship between amotivation and social support provided by PE teachers. This study was a descriptive-correlation survey conducted as a field study. The statistical population involved all PE teachers and 2nd and 3rd high school students of Bookan city. 381 students were selected by multi-level cluster random sampling method as well as all 32 teachers as the sample of this study. For data collection, Questionnaire of Amotivation in Physical Education by Shen et al. (2010), and Interpersonal Behavior Scale by Pelletier et al. (2008) were used. Friedman test, Spearman test of correlation and U Mann Whitney test were used for data analysis. The results showed that unappealing activities and insufficient effort was the most important reason for students’ amotivation from the viewpoints of students and PE teachers. The results revealed a significant difference between teachers’ and students’ viewpoints in amotivation reasons. Also, there was a negative and significant relationship between PE teachers’ social support and students’ amotivation reasons (lack of competencies, insufficient effort, valueless activities and unappealing activities) from students’ viewpoints. However, from PE teachers’ viewpoints, there was no significant relationship between the variables. As a reduction in PE teachers' support behavior can result in students' amotivation, it is recommended that PE teachers should identify the multi-lateral nature of amotivation and improve students' participation in Physical education activities through an increase in social support.
10.Can, S.(2010). “Determination of the factors motivating and motivation level of the weightlifters participating in Turkish weightlifting championship”. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), PP: 4245–4249.
11.Cavill, N., Biddle, S.J.H., and Sallis, J. F.(2001). “Health enhancing physical activity for young people: Statement of the United Kingdom expert consensus conference”. Pediatric Exercise Science, 13(1), PP: 12-25.
12.Deci, E. L., and Ryan, R. M.(2000). “The what and why of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior”. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), PP: 227–268.
13.Legault, L., Green-Demers, I., and Pelletier, L.G.(2006). “Why do high school students lack motivation in the classroom? Toward an understanding of academic amotivation and the role of social support”. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), PP: 567–582.
14.Lim, C., and Wang, J.(2009). “Perceived autonomy support, behavioural regulations in physical education and physical activity intention”. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(1), PP: 52–60.
15.Ntoumanis, N. (2005).“A Prospective Study of Participation in Optional School Physical Education Using a Self-Determination Theory Framework”. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), PP: 444-453.
16.Ntoumanis, N., Pensgaard, A.M., Martin, C., and Pipe, K.(2004). “An ideographic analysis of amotivation in compulsory school physical education”. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26(2), PP: 197-214.
17.Pelletier, L. G., Beaudry, S., Sharp, E. and Otis, N. (2008). “The Interpersonal Behaviors Scale: A measure of Autonomy Support, Competence and Relatedness in Different Life Domains”. Unpublished manuscript, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
18.Sallis, J.F.(2000). “Age-related decline in physical activity: A synthesis of human and animal studies”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(9), PP: 1598-1600.
19.Sarrazin, P., Tessier, D., Pelletier, L., Trouilloud, D., and Chanal, J. (2006). “The Effects of Teachers’ Expectations about Students’ Motivation on Teachers’ Autonomy Supportive and Controlling Behaviors”. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 4(3), PP: 283-301.
20.Shen, B., Li, W., Sun, H., and Rukavina, P. B.(2010). “The Influence of Inadequate Teacher-to- Student Social Support on Amotivation of Physical Education Students”. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29(4), PP: 417-432.
21.Springer, A.E., Kelder, S.H., and Hoelscher, D.M.(2006). “Social support, physical activity and sedentary behavior among 6th-grade girls: a cross-sectional study”. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3(8), PP: 1479-1489.
22.Standage, M., Duda, J. L., and Ntoumanis, N.(2006). “Students’ motivational processes and their relationship to teacherratings in school physical education: A self-determination theory approach”. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77(1), PP: 100–110.
23.Tessier, D., Sarrazin, P. and Ntoumanis, N. (2010). “The effect of an intervention to improve newly qualified teachers’ interpersonal style, students’ motivation and psychological need satisfaction in sport-based physical education”. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(4), PP: 242–253.
24.Vallerand, R.J., Pelletier, L.G., Blais, M.R., Brière, N.M., Senécal, C.B., and Vallières, E.F.(1992). “The academic motivation scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education”. Education and Psychological Measurement, 52(4), PP: 1003-1017.
25.Vallerand, R.J., Fortier, M.S., and Guay, F.(1997). “Self-determination and persistence in a real-life setting: Toward a motivational model of high school dropout”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(5), PP: 1161-1176.
26.Wigfield, A., and Eccles, J.S.(2000). “Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation”. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), PP: 68–81.