عنوان مقاله [English]
Increased anti-inflammatory cytokines and decreased inflammatory cytokines through exercise is one of the ways to reduce chronic inflammation. Current study aimed at investigating the effect of endurance training on inflammatory markers in male smokers. Two groups: experimental (mean age 25.30 ± 2.95 years, n=10) and control (mean age 26.11 ± 2.76 years, n=10) were selected randomly. Endurance training protocol including of 20 minutes of running with intensity of 55-65% of heart rate reserve was performed by the experimental group during six weeks. 48 hours after the last training session, measurements similar to those before training and blood samples were collected. The data were analyzed by dependent t test within a group and independent t test between the groups (α≤0.05). The results showed that six weeks of endurance training intervention significantly decreased CRP (P=0.012) and significantly increased IL-10 (P=0.01) in the experimental group. The results indicated the effect of exercise on inflammatory markers in male smokers. On the other hand, these findings show that smokers may reduce the side effects of smoking if they have endurance training. But this requires further research on the role of endurance training and its relationship to inflammation.
10.Markovitch D, Tyrrell RM, Thompson D. Acute moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged men has neither an anti-nor proinflammatory effect. (2008) Journal of applied physiology. 105(1):260-5.
11.Meilhac O, Ramachandran S, Chiang K, Santanam N, Parthasarathy S. Role of arterial wall antioxidant defense in beneficial effects of exercise on atherosclerosis in mice.(2001). Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 21(10):1681-8.
12.Haider DG, Pleiner J, Francesconi M, Wiesinger GnF, Müller M, Wolzt M. Exercise training lowers plasma visfatin concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes. (2006). The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 91(11):4702-4.
13.Frydelund-Larsen L, Akerstrom T, Nielsen S, Keller P, Keller C, Pedersen BK.( 2007). Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 292(1):E24-E31.
14.Donatto F, Neves R, Rosa F, Camargo R, Ribeiro H, Matos-Neto E, et al. (2013). Resistance exercise modulates lipid plasma profile and cytokine content in the adipose tissue of tumour-bearing rats. Cytokine. 61(2):426-32.
15.Loprinzi PD, Walker JF. (2015). Combined association of physical activity and diet with C-reactive protein among smokers. Journal of diabetes and metabolic disorders. 14:51.
16.Toledo AC, Magalhaes RM, Hizume DC, Vieira RP, Biselli PJ, Moriya HT, et al. Aerobic exercise attenuates pulmonary injury induced by exposure to cigarette smoke.(2012). European Respiratory Journal. 39(2):254-64.
17.A. S. Jackson and M. L. Pollock (1978), “Generalized equations for predicting body density of men,” Br. J. Nutr., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 497–504,.
18.J. Karvonen and T. Vuorimaa, (1988) “Heart rate and exercise intensity during sports activities. Practical application,” Sport. Med, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 303–311,.
19.Visser M, Bouter LM, McQuillan GM, Wener MH, Harris TB (1999). Elevated C-reactive protein levels in overweight and obese adults. Jama.;282(22):2131-5.
20.Thomas NE, Williams DR (2008). Inflammatory factors, physical activity, and physical fitness in young people. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports.;18(5):543-56.
21.Ridker PM (2003). Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation.;107(3):363-9..
22.Hemati nafar M , arefi GH .”The impact of an interval training on lipid profile untrained young men” Journal of Biological Sciences. 2014 6(3) 259-272.
23.Mayer-Davis EJ, D'Agostino R, Jr., Karter AJ, Haffner SM, Rewers MJ, Saad M, et al (1998). Intensity and amount of physical activity in relation to insulin sensitivity: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Jama.;279(9):669-74.
24.Gielen S, Adams V, Mobius-Winkler S, Linke A, Erbs S, Yu J, et al (2003). Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol.;42(5):861-8.
25.Smith JK, Dykes R, Douglas JE, Krishnaswamy G, Berk S (1999). Long-term exercise and atherogenic activity of blood mononuclear cells in persons at risk of developing ischemic heart disease. Jama.;281(18):1722-7..
26.Taddei S, Galetta F, Virdis A, Ghiadoni L, Salvetti G, Franzoni F, et al (2000). Physical activity prevents age-related impairment in nitric oxide availability in elderly athletes. Circulation.;101(25):2896-901.
27.Guerassimov A, Hoshino Y, Takubo Y, Turcotte A, Yamamoto M, Ghezzo H, et al (2004). The development of emphysema in cigarette smoke-exposed mice is strain dependent. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine.170(9), 70-894.
28.Kadoglou NP, Iliadis F, Angelopoulou N, Perrea D, Ampatzidis G, Liapis CD, et al (2007). The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation.;14(6):837-43.
29.Nicklas BJ, Hsu FC, Brinkley TJ, Church T, Goodpaster BH, Kritchevsky SB, et al. (2008). Exercise Training and Plasma C‐Reactive Protein and Interleukin‐6 in Elderly People. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.56(11):2045-52.
30.Hovanloo F. Arefirad T., S. Ahmadinejad, Mehdi hedayati (2011). The effect of two kinds of speed-interval training and endurance-continuity with the intensity and volume of the level of inflammatory markers. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism..