A Comparison of Online Marketing, Media Contents and Interaction with Fans through Official Websites of Football Clubs in Iran, Asia and Europe


1 PhD Student of Sport Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


This study was conducted to explore and compare official websites of professional football clubs of Europe, Asia and Iran with regard to providing contents and interaction with fans using official websites of clubs and their online marketing. For this purpose, official websites of all clubs participating in the final stages of UEFA Champions League (16 teams), AFC Champions League (16 teams), and Iran Premier League (18 teams) were examined. A researcher-made questionnaire was used in this study and its validity was approved by sport management experts and professors. The results showed that Iranian clubs websites offered the lowest online services (mean 26.90 out of 100) and had the lowest score of interaction with fans (14.89 out of 100) and the lowest online marketing and selling their products and services (mean 8.19 out of 100). The results of one-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference in the official websites of football clubs between Iran and Asia and Europe leagues in all three elements of online marketing, media content and interaction with fans.


1.استولد، جی.کلایتون؛ دیتمور، استفن دبلیو؛ برانولد، اسکات ای (1388). روابط عمومی ورزشی (مدیریت  ارتباطات سازمانی). ترجمه حمید قاسمی، سارا کشگر و ناتاشا قلعه، نشر علم و حرکت. ص 168-172.
2.غلامیان، شجیع، (1385)، بررسی وضعیت وب سایت سازمان ها و فدراسیون ورزشی ایران بر اساس معیارهای عمومی و تخصصی ارزیابی، چهارمین همایش علمی دانشجویی تربیت بدنی، دانشگاه الزهرا. ص 37-34.
3.یوسفی و همکاران (1386). «بررسی وضعیت بازاریابی ورزشی از طریق اینترنت در ایران با تأکید بر عناصر 4p». پژوهش در علوم ورزشی ، شماره پانزدهم، ص 95-81.
4.Ashelm, M. (2003), “Zu verkaufen!: Die Marke Beckham ist fu¨r Manchester United nicht mehr profitabel genug (To sell! the brand ‘Beckham’ is not profitable enough any more for Manchester United)”, Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, Vol. 15, p. 14.
5.Bauer, Hans H., Sauer, Nicola E., and Schmitt, Philipp (2005). Customer-based brand equity in the team sport industry Operationalization and impact on the economic success of sport teams. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 39 No. 5/6, 2005, pp. 496-513.
6.Beech, J., & Chadwick, S & Tapp, A. (2000). Towards a schema for football clubs seeking an effective presence on the internet, European Journal for Sport Management (EJSM), (2000), 30 – 50.
7.Beech, J., Chadwick, S. & Tapp, A., 2000. Emerging trends in the use of the Internet? Lessons from the football sector, Qualitative Market Research An International Journal, 3(1), pp.22-7.
8.Berthon, P., Pitt, L., & Watson, R. T. (1996a). The World Wide Web as an advertising medium: Toward an understanding of conversion efficiency. Journal of Advertising Research, 36(1), PP.43-54.
9.Berthon, P., Pitt, L., & Watson, R. T. (1996b). Marketing communication and World Wide Web. Business Horizons, 39(5), PP.24-32.
10.Berthon, P., Pitt, L., & Watson, R. T. (1996c). Re-surfing w3: Research perspectives on marketing communications on the World Wide Web. International Journal of Advertising, 15(4), PP.287-301.
11.Carlo, C. D. (2010). WHAT CONTENT MAKES PEOPLE WANT TO USE SPORTS WEBSITES? (A Thesis),December 2010. PP 43-75.
12. Peter J. Danaher, John R. Rossiter, (2011) "Comparing perceptions of marketing communication channels", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 45 Iss: 1/2, pp.6 – 42.
13.Daniel, M. Evans, Smith, A. C. T. (2004). Internet sports marketing and competitive advantage for professional sports clubs : bridging the gap between theory and practice. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, (November 2004), 86-99.
14.Evans, D. M., & Smith, A. C. T. (2005). The Internet and Competitive Advantage : A Study of Australia ’ s Four Premier Professional Sporting Leagues. Sport Management Review 27-56.
15.Hur, Y. & Ko, Y. J., & Claussen, C. L. (2011). Acceptance of sports websites : a conceptual model. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship. (April), 209-225.
16.Hur, Y., Ko, Y. J., & Valacich, J. (2011). A Structural Model of the Relationships Between Sport Website Quality, E-Satisfaction, and E-Loyalty. Journal of Sport Management 2011, 25, 458-473.
17.Ioakimidis, Marilou (2010). Online marketing of professional sports clubs: engaging fans on a new playing field. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, July 2010, PP.271-282
18.Ja Joon Koo  (2009). Brand Management Strategy for Korean Professional Football Teams, (March). A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
19.Jensen, J. (1995). Shooting to Score on the "net". Advertising Age, 64(14), PP.24-25.
20.José-Cabezudo R. S., Gutiérrez-Cillán, J. & Gutiérrez-Arranz, A. M., 2008. The moderating role of user motivation in Internet access and individuals' responses to a Website. Journal of Internet Research. 18(4), pp. 393-404.
21.Kotsovos, A., & Kriemadis, A. (2000). (sp) internet relationship marketing and professional football clubs-an interactive future, Direct Marketing: An International Journal, Vol. 3 Iss: 4, pp. 4-8.
22.Kriemadisa, T., Terzoudisa, C., & Kartakoullisb, N. (2010). Internet marketing in football clubs : a comparison between English and Greek websites, 11(3), 291-307.
23.Lee, Jeoung Hak (2000). Sport Marketing Strategies Through the Analysis of Sport Consumer Behavior and Factors Influenceing Attendance. Ph.D thesis of University of Minnesota. p. 116-124.
24.Matthew T.A .An analysis of online marketing in the sport industry: user activity, communication objectives, and perceived benefits. Sport Marketing Quarterly 2003 Vol. 12 No. 1 pp. 48-55.
25.Ngai, E.W.T., 2003. Internet marketing research (1987-2000): a literature review and classification, European Journal of Marketing, 37( 1/2), pp.29-36.
26.Scholl, H. J., & Carlson, T. S. (n.d.). Professional sports teams on the Web : a comparative study employing the information management perspective. European Sport Management Quarterly. (September 2012), 37-41.
27.Sharp, L., 2001. Positive response action: The ultimate goal of website communication. Journal of Communication Management. 6(1), pp.41-52.