نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران
2 دانشیار دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
When misconducts outside the playing field occur by stakeholders of sport, penalties and fines are usually intended by sports clubs. However, if punitive actions were imposed by more formal entities such as the League organization or the Disciplinary Committee, it is likely that these votes will be challenged by the media. In recent years, more stringent disciplinary regulations have been introduced by the world's most prestigious sports leagues for the inappropriate behavior of athletes outside the field of sports and the number and severity of fines for offenders have increased. These punishments are considered with goals such as keeping a healthy environment, the development of healthy communication among sport stakeholders, support for professional ethics, educating good behaviors, providing a positive moral image of sports stakeholders, preventing league losses, and improving the reputation of the league and often beyond the framework of the players' contracts. However, factors such as the lack of defined hearing procedures, the reliance on public opinion in punishment, the magnitude of the misconduct of players, and the large difference in penalties in different leagues have raised questions about the competence and authority of professional sports leagues to punish players for abuse. This article analyzes how to punish misconducts of athletes outside the field of sports in the four major US sports leagues (including National Basketball, Basketball, Hockey, and Soccer), and with Iran’s Premier Football league and in particular, The way things are solved by the Football Federation's Ethics Committee is being compared and adapted.