مقایسۀ تأثیر سطوح متفاوت آلودگی هوا بر پاسخ مالون‌دی‌آلدئید و ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی تام بزاقی به یک پروتکل شبه‌فوتبال در دختران نوجوان فوتبالیست

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزش، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار و هیأت علمی گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکدة علوم انسانی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

چکیده

 
هدف از پژوهش حاضر مقایسۀ تأثیر سطوح متفاوت آلودگی هوا بر پاسخ مالون‌دی‌آلدئید (MDA) و ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی تام (TAC) بزاقی به یک پروتکل شبه‌فوتبال در دختران بالغ نوجوان فوتبالیست بود. در این پژوهش نیمه‌تجربی، 12 دختر فوتبالیست به‌صورت هدفمند انتخاب شدند. آزمودنی‌ها در سه نوبت در هوای پاک، سالم و ناسالم به اجرای پروتکل شبه‌فوتبال بنگسبو پرداختند و قبل و بعد از اجرای هر نوبت نمونۀ بزاق جمع‌آوری و برای سنجش MDA و TAC استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد در هر سه شرایط آب‌وهوایی (پاک، سالم و ناسالم) مقادیر MDA بزاقی بر اثر اجرای پروتکل شبه‌فوتبال در حد معناداری افزایش یافت (۰۵/۰< P)، ولی تفاوت معناداری از نظر میزان تغییرات MDA در شرایط آب‌وهوایی گوناگون بر اثر اجرای پروتکل شبه‌فوتبال مشاهده نشد (۷۳۳/۰=P). همچنین در شرایط آب‌وهوایی پاک و سالم، TAC بزاقی بر اثر اجرای پروتکل شبه‌فوتبال در حد معناداری افزایش یافت (۰۵/۰< P)، ولی در شرایط ناسالم افزایش آن در حد معنادار نبود (۰۵/۰> P). همچنین از نظر میزان تغییرات TAC در شرایط آب‌وهوایی گوناگون بر اثر اجرای پروتکل شبه‌فوتبال، تنها بین گروه پاک با ناسالم از نظر میزان افزایش TAC تفاوت معناداری مشاهده شد (۰۲۶/۰=P). یافته‌های این پژوهش از توصیۀ عمومی مبنی بر محدود کردن فعالیت‌های ورزشی و رقابت‌ها در هوای ناسالم و جابه‌جایی زمان یا مکان فعالیت‌ها و رقابت‌ها به هنگام ناسالم بودن هوا حمایت می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparison of the Effect of Different Levels of Air Pollution on Response of Salivary Malondialdehyde and Total Antioxidant Capacity to a Semi-Soccer Protocol in Adolescent Female Soccer Players

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fahime Fathi 1
  • Ali Samadi 2
1 MSc in Exercise Physiology, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
2 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
The aim of present study was to compare the effect of different levels of air pollution on the response of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva to a quasi-soccer protocol in adolescent female soccer players. In this semi-experimental study, 12 female soccer players were selected purposively. The subjects performed the Bangsbo quasi-soccer protocol 3 times in clean, healthy and unhealthy air qualities; saliva samples were collected before and after each test and were used to measure MDA and TAC. The results showed that in all three qualities (clean, healthy and unhealthy), salivary MDA values increased significantly due to the implementation of quasi-soccer protocol (P<0.05), but no significant differences in MDA changes was not observed among different qualities due to the implementation of quasi-soccer protocol (P = 0.733). Also, in clean and healthy air conditions, saliva TAC increased significantly due to the implementation of Bangsbo protocol (P<0.05), but in unhealthy air quality, this increase was not significant (P>0.05). Also, in terms of TAC changes in different air qualities, only a significant difference was observed between clean and unhealthy air qualities in TAC increase (P = 0.026). The findings of the present study supports general recommendations to limit exercises and competitions in unhealthy air quality and to relocate the time or place of activities and competitions when the air quality is unhealthy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • adolescent female soccer players
  • Air pollution
  • oxidative stress
1.            Lodovici M, Bigagli E. Oxidative stress and air pollution exposure. Journal of Toxicology. 2011, Article ID 487074, 9 pages.
2.            https://www.who.int/health-topics/air-pollution#tab=tab_1.
3.            Mehrbani SP, Babaloo Z, Jamali Z, Abdollahian T, Eslami H, Sobhani N. Effect of air pollution on salivary interleukin-8 levels in children. World Journal of Dentistry. 2016;7(4):175-8.
4.            Rezvan Elahi. [Major Air Pollutants, Resources and Their Health Effects on Human Health (In Persian)]. First National Conference on Environmental Protection and Planning, Hamadan, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch. 2012.
5.            Baqaei B. Tartibian B. Dr. Baradaran B. [Investigating the relationship between total antioxidant and creatine phosphokinase and hydrogen peroxide in athletic girls; Influenced by intense sports training (In Persian)] Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012:19 (95) 35-43.
6.            William D, Mc Ardle-Frank I. Katch. Exercise Physiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 2007.p. 72-4.
7.            Bahrami F, Esfarjani F, Marandi SM. Effects of Intermittent Exercise in Polluted and Clean Air on Hemolysis of Red Blood Cells in Endurance Runners. Journal of Isfahan Medical School. 2013;30(212): 1845-55.
8.            Ayala A, Muñoz MF, Argüelles S. Lipid peroxidation: production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.2014, Article ID 360438, 31 pages.
9.            Annual Report on Tehran Air Quality in 2013, QM93 / 02/07 (U) / 1, First Edition, June 2014.
10.         Vujovic, A., et al. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defense in schoolchildren residing in a petrochemical industry environment. Indian pediatrics; 2010. 47(3): p. 233-239.
11.         Seyed Reza Zadeh A, Ardalan MR, Pour Moghadam M. [Serum Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Status In Hemodialysis and Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients (In Persian)]. Journal of Medical Council of Iran. 2007. 27 (4):504-497.
12.         Sugiura, H., et al., Immunomodulatory action of chronic exercise on macrophage and lymphocyte cytokine production in mice. Acta Physiol Scand. 2002. 174(3):247-56.
13.         Adams AK, Best TM. The role of antioxidants in exercise and disease prevention. The physician and sportsmedicine. 2002;30(5):37-44.
14.         Schneider CD, Barp J, Ribeiro JL, Belló-Klein A, Oliveira AR. Oxidative stress after three different intensities of running. Canadian journal of applied physiology. 2005;30(6):723-34.
15.         Khalsi M. [The effect of a swimming training period on the expression of Sirt1, TNF-a, FOXO3 and NFkB genes in the lung tissue of rats exposed to tobacco-derived nitrosamines (NNK) (In Persian)]. [PhD Thesis], University of Mazandaran, 2017.
16.         Kheirjoo E, Jomehri F, Ahadi H, Manisefat FF. [Comparison of health promoting lifestyle of female rheumatoid arthritis patients with healthy women and it's relationship with demographic factors (In Persian)]. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology. 2013;12(4):61-4.
17.         Manstein G. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in New York City runners. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1984;74(1):168.
18.         Imanizadeh S, Saheb Al-Zamani M, Amiri Khorasani MT. [Effect of Soccer Specific Functional Fatigue On hip and knee Joints Kinematics In professional players during Landing (In Persian)]. Journal of Research in Sports Medicine and Technology. 2015; 13 (10) :35-46.
19.         Hosseini SM, [Examining the Cardiac Troponin I Response to a Football Match in Adolescent Male Soccer Player [MSc]. (In Persian)]. Shahed University. 2016.
20.         Asmat U, Abad K, Ismail K. Diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress—A concise review. Saudi pharmaceutical journal. 2016;24(5):547-53.
21.         Chamari K, Hachana Y, Ahmed YB, Galy O, Sghaier F, Chatard JC, Hue O, Wisløff U. Field and laboratory testing in young elite soccer players. British journal of sports medicine. 2004;38(2):191-6.
22.         Khan Ahmadi V, [Comparison of the Effect of Air Pollution on Malone De Aldeid's Response and Total salivary antioxidant capacity to a quasi-football protocol in open and indoor space in young football players [MSc]. (In Persian)]. Shahed University. 2019.
23.         Wu X, Lintelmann J, Klingbeil S, Li J, Wang H, Kuhn E, Ritter S, Zimmermann R. Determination of air pollution-related biomarkers of exposure in urine of travellers between Germany and China using liquid chromatographic and liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods: a pilot study. Biomarkers. 2017;22(6):525-36.
24.         Muñoz D, Olcina G, Timón R, Robles MC, Caballero MJ, Maynar M. Effect of different exercise intensities on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant response in trained cyclists. Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness. 2010;50(1):93.
25.         Afzalpour MI, Saqib Joo M, Zarban A, Jani M. [Comparison of the effect of acute resuscitation and aerobic activity on the antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation activity in healthy young men (In Persian)]. Journal of Sport and Biomotor Sciences; 2011; 3 (6): 30-39.
26.         Zalghi R, Moradpourian MR. [The Impact of an Eccentric Exercise Session on Reducing Muscular Sorness and Oxidative Stress in Female Volleyball Players (In Persian)]. 3rd National Conference on Strategies for Achieving Sustainable Development in Sports Science and Physical Education, Tehran, 2019.
27.         Abdi Nejad H, Demirchi A, Sariri R. [A Comparison of the Effect of Maximal Aerobic Exercise on Salivary Antioxidant and Immunoglobulin AChanges in Athlete and Non-Athlete Middle-Aged Men (In Persian)]. Journal of Sport Physiology & Management investigations.2017:9(2): 101-113.
28.         Jamurtas AZ, Fatouros IG, Deli CK, Georgakouli K, Poulios A, Draganidis D, Papanikolaou K, Tsimeas P, Chatzinikolaou A, Avloniti A, Tsiokanos A. The effects of acute low-volume HIIT and aerobic exercise on leukocyte count and redox status. Journal of sports science & medicine. 2018;17(3):501.
29.         Kurkcu R. The effects of short-term exercise on the parameters of oxidant and antioxidant system in handball players. African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 2010;4(7):448-52.
30.         Yekta Yar M, Mohammadzadeh Salamat K, Etemad Z, Atashk S, Azizbeigi Bukani K. [The effect of moderate intensity resistance training on changes in total plasma antioxidant capacity and inflammatory factors in healthy men (In Persian)]. Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2013:18(4):1-7.