1. Block ML, Elder A, Auten RL, Bilbo SD, Chen H, Chen J-C, et al. The outdoor air pollution and brain health workshop. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33(5):972-84.
2. Costa LG, Cole TB, Coburn J, Chang Y-C, Dao K, Roque P. Neurotoxicants are in the air: convergence of human, animal, and in vitro studies on the effects of air pollution on the brain. BioMed research international. 2014;2014.
3. Guxens M, Sunyer Deu J. A review of epidemiological studies on neuropsychological effects of air pollution. Swiss Medical Weekly 2012 141: w13322. 2012.
4. Genc S, Zadeoglulari Z, Fuss SH, Genc K. The adverse effects of air pollution on the nervous system. Journal of Toxicology. 2012;2012.
5. Nunomura A, Perry G, Aliev G, Hirai K, Takeda A, Balraj EK, et al. Oxidative damage is the earliest event in Alzheimer disease. Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology. 2001;60(8):759-67.
6. Nunomura A, Tamaoki T, Motohashi N, Nakamura M, McKeel Jr DW, Tabaton M, et al. The earliest stage of cognitive impairment in transition from normal aging to Alzheimer disease is marked by prominent RNA oxidation in vulnerable neurons. Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. 2012;71(3):233.
7. Becker S, Fenton MJ, Soukup JM. Involvement of microbial components and toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in cytokine responses to air pollution particles. American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology. 2002;27(5):611-8.
8. Li Y, Henze DK, Jack D, Henderson BH, Kinney PL. Assessing public health burden associated with exposure to ambient black carbon in the United States. Science of The Total Environment. 2016;539:515-25.
9. Jackson P, Hougaard KS, Boisen AMZ, Jacobsen NR, Jensen KA, Møller P, et al. Pulmonary exposure to carbon black by inhalation or instillation in pregnant mice: effects on liver DNA strand breaks in dams and offspring. Nanotoxicology. 2012;6(5):486-500.
10. Suglia SF, Gryparis A, Wright R, Schwartz J, Wright R. Association of black carbon with cognition among children in a prospective birth cohort study. American journal of epidemiology. 2008;167(3):280-6.
11. Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Cellular and molecular immunology: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014.
12. Akira S, Takeda K. Toll-like receptor signalling. Nature reviews immunology. 2004;4(7):499-511.
13. Hanke ML, Kielian T. Toll-like receptors in health and disease in the brain: mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Clinical Science. 2011;121(9):367-87.
14. Barrientos RM. Voluntary exercise as an anti-neuroinflammatory therapeutic. Brain, behavior, and immunity. 2011;25(6):1061-2.
15. Funk JA, Gohlke J, Kraft AD, McPherson CA, Collins JB, Harry GJ. Voluntary exercise protects hippocampal neurons from trimethyltin injury: possible role of interleukin-6 to modulate tumor necrosis factor receptor-mediated neurotoxicity. Brain, behavior, and immunity. 2011;25(6):1063-77.
16. Leem Y-H, Lee Y-I, Son H-J, Lee S-H. Chronic exercise ameliorates the neuroinflammation in mice carrying NSE/htau23. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2011;406(3):359-65.
17. Adlard PA, Perreau VM, Pop V, Cotman CW. Voluntary exercise decreases amyloid load in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease. The Journal of neuroscience. 2005;25(17):4217-21.
18. Daigle CC, Chalupa DC, Gibb FR, Morrow PE, Oberdörster G, Utell MJ, et al. Ultrafine particle deposition in humans during rest and exercise. Inhalation toxicology. 2003;15(6):539-52.
19. Dishman RK, Berthoud HR, Booth FW, Cotman CW, Edgerton VR, Fleshner MR, et al. Neurobiology of exercise. Obesity. 2006;14(3):345-56.
20. Fonken L, Xu X, Weil ZM, Chen G, Sun Q, Rajagopalan S, et al. Air pollution impairs cognition, provokes depressive-like behaviors and alters hippocampal cytokine expression and morphology. Molecular psychiatry. 2011;16(10):987-95.
21. Zhang B, Choi JJ, Eum SY, Daunert S, Toborek M. TLR4 signaling is involved in brain vascular toxicity of PCB153 bound to nanoparticles. PloS one. 2013;8(5):e63159.
22. Ma Y, He M, Qiang L. Exercise therapy downregulates the overexpression of TLR4, TLR2, MyD88 and NF-κB after cerebral ischemia in rats. International journal of molecular sciences. 2013;14(2):3718-33.
23. Stewart LK, Flynn MG, Campbell WW, Craig BA, Robinson JP, McFarlin BK, et al. Influence of exercise training and age on CD14+ cell-surface expression of toll-like receptor 2 and 4. Brain, behavior, and immunity. 2005;19(5):389-97.
24. Oliveira M, Gleeson M. The influence of prolonged cycling on monocyte Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression in healthy men. European journal of applied physiology. 2010;109(2):251-7.
25. Lancaster GI, Khan Q, Drysdale P, Wallace F, Jeukendrup AE, Drayson MT, et al. The physiological regulation of toll‐like receptor expression and function in humans. The Journal of physiology. 2005;563(3):945-55.
26. McFarlin BK, Flynn MG, Campbell WW, Craig BA, Robinson JP, Stewart LK, et al. Physical activity status, but not age, influences inflammatory biomarkers and toll-like receptor 4. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2006;61(4):388-93.
27. Fernandez-Gonzalo R, De Paz JA, Rodriguez-Miguelez P, Cuevas MJ, González-Gallego J. Effects of eccentric exercise on toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J2 Xu X, Yavar Z, Verdin M, Ying Z, Mihai G, Kampfrath T, et al. Effect of early particulate air pollution exposure on obesity in mice role of p47phox. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2010;30(12):2518-27.
29. Fisher G, Hyatt TC, Hunter GR, Oster RA, Desmond RA, Gower BA. Effect of diet with and without exercise training on markers of inflammation and fat distribution in overweight women. Obesity. 2011;19(6):1131-6.
30. Pischon T, Hankinson SE, Hotamisligil GS, Rifai N, Rimm EB. Leisure‐time physical activity and reduced plasma levels of obesity‐related inflammatory markers. Obesity research. 2003;11(9):1055-64.
31. Ziccardi P, Nappo F, Giugliano G, Esposito K, Marfella R, Cioffi M, et al. Reduction of inflammatory cytokine concentrations and improvement of endothelial functions in obese women after weight loss over one year. Circulation. 2002;105(7):804-9.